Marshall Memo 578

A Weekly Round-up of Important Ideas and Research in K-12 Education

March 16, 2015



In This Issue:

1. Timothy Shanahan on real test prep

2. How to reduce academic cheating

3. Does the Common Core promote moral relativism?

4. Three ways young adolescents can build strong vocabularies

5. A Pennsylvania teacher makes poetry a daily routine

6. Using the newspaper for daily literacy instruction

7. A successful extended-day partnership in the Bronx

8. A Mississippi teacher flips test review

9. Short items: (a) Demystifying the Common Core; (b) Duolingo for Schools;

   (c) A consumer guide to Common Core math materials


Quotes of the Week

“The late Madeline Hunter… once said, in reference to determining teacher competence, that if you hear someone playing the piano, it doesn’t take long to figure out if it’s Liberace or the boy next door practicing.”

            David Finley in “Teacher Tenure: An Innocent Victim of Vergara v. California” in

Education Week, March 4, 2015 (Vol. 34, #23, p. 32, 24),


“The idea of having students practice answering test questions is ubiquitous and ineffective in raising test scores.”

Timothy Shanahan (see item #1)


“We should be engineering our assessment systems to ensure that students see our assignments and exams as opportunities to extend and demonstrate their learning, rather than as hurdles we make them jump over or duels we make them fight.”

            James Lang (see item #2)


“I have great trouble filling leisure time, so I eliminate it.”

            Herald Price Fahringer, First Amendment lawyer (1927-2015), on his workaholic ways,

quoted in an obituary in The Week, March 6, 2015


“Relax, reach down in your soul, and produce that which is in it.”

            Clark Terry, legendary jazz trumpeter (1920-2015), advising young musicians, quoted

in an obituary in The Week, March 6, 2015










1. Timothy Shanahan on Real Test Prep

            “The idea of having students practice answering test questions is ubiquitous and ineffective in raising test scores,” says Timothy Shanahan (University of Illinois/ Chicago) in this article in The Reading Teacher. He understands the pressure to raise scores on the new generation of more-challenging ELA tests coming down the pike – PARCC, Smarter Balanced, and others. But the time-honored approach of analyzing sample test items and having students answer questions on main idea, supporting detail, providing evidence, describing a character, identifying a theme, and drawing conclusions doesn’t work, he says. “It has never worked. And it won’t work any better with the new assessments on the horizon. It’s as ineffective as pushing the elevator button multiple times to hurry it along or turning the thermostat to 90º to make a room warm up faster.”

            So why are so many principals and superintendents and teachers wasting valuable instructional time on an ineffective strategy? “There is a kind of logic to it,” says Shanahan: “The students are practicing something that at least looks like it could improve test scores.” But the fundamental problem is that many educators are not sure what will improve test scores and make students better readers. It’s not students’ ability to answer questions on specific skills, says Shanahan – “performance on various question types explains none of the variance in student performance on standardized comprehension tests… Analyses of test performance suggest that outcome variance is due not to the questions but to the passages. On reading comprehension tests, it matters how well students read the passages that they will be questioned about. If you want higher test scores, then teach your students to read the test passages better.” How do teachers do that? Here are Shanahan’s suggestions:

            • Teach students how to figure out unknown words. When they take the new tests, students are going to encounter some words they don’t know – there’s no way they will have learned all the possible words. If instruction during the year has focused on learning as many words as possible, students will be up the creek without a paddle. But if instruction has focused on learning words and strategies for figuring out unknown words, students will be able to manage. Shanahan believes that during the year, too many teachers are pre-teaching words. That’s okay if the words’ meaning can’t be figured out from context clues. But if there are context clues, as there usually are, students should be required to do the work of figuring out the word – and explicitly taught how to struggle successfully.

            • Making sense of sentences. Consider this sentence from a fourth-grade text and how difficult it would be for many students to decipher its dependent clauses:

The women of Montgomery, both young and older, would come in with their fancy holiday dresses that needed adjustments or their Sunday suits or blouses that needed just a touch – a flower or some velvet trimming or something to make the ladies look festive.

Students need explicit instruction in how to close-read this sentence, break it down to its basic elements by taking out parenthetical phrases, and make sense of it. The same is true of sentences that use the passive voice (It was determined by Roosevelt that the Chancellor’s message did not require an immediate response from the State Department). “There is a substantial research base showing the effectiveness of sentence combining and sentence reduction in improving students’ writing and reading comprehension,” says Shanahan. “Such lessons, at one time, were commonplace in many American classrooms. Perhaps it’s time for their rediscovery.”

            • Silent reading with real understanding – Reading comprehension tests require students to read lengthy passages without prompting or assistance. How much practice are students getting at this demanding task? Shanahan wonders. He sees silent reading periods in schools he visits, but he’s unclear: “I just can’t tell, from what I see, whether the students are really improving in that essential reading skill or whether they are languishing. In many situations, I doubt whether the teacher knows, either. Sadly, I’m finding that few teachers have any idea how to teach students to engage successfully in this kind of extended silent reading.” Shanahan believes many students need to be asked to read one sentence silently and be quizzed on it, then two sentences, then a paragraph, then a page, then a chapter. “This kind of build-up reading with intensive questioning can take place beyond the reading book,” he says – in science, social studies, Weekly Reader, Time for Kids. And students need to be able to do it without picture clues.

            If we teach these three things well – figuring out unknown words, breaking down difficult sentences, and sustaining concentration and comprehension when reading long passages silently – Shanahan believes we will see improved test performance, and students will be better readers as well.


“Let’s Get Higher Scores on These New Assessments” by Timothy Shanahan in The Reading Teacher, March 2015 (Vol. 68, #6, p. 459-463), available for purchase at; Shanahan can be reached at [email protected].

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2. How to Reduce Academic Cheating

            In this interview with Serena Golden in Inside Higher Ed, James Lang (Assumption College) discusses his recent book, Cheating Lessons: Learning from Academic Dishonesty (Harvard University Press, 2013). Lang believes today’s students aren’t more academically dishonest than previous generations, but there is still plenty of cheating – most students admit to doing it at some point in their college careers [and the same is true in the pre-college years]. Here are some key points from the interview:

            • “Cheating is an inappropriate response to a learning environment that’s not working for the student,” says Lang. Students need to be held accountable if they cheat, but cheating is a symptom that something is amiss. Perhaps the course is a meaningless curriculum requirement, an assignment seems like busywork, or the student is confused and lacks the skills and knowledge to be successful.

            • Students who are mastery-oriented are motivated to understand and retain course content, whereas performance-oriented students are anxious to get good grades and less concerned about the material for its own sake. Researchers have found that mastery-oriented students understand more and have better long-term retention than performance-oriented students – and they cheat less.

The good news, says Lang, is that students aren’t locked into a mastery or performance orientation: “the design of the learning environment can nudge students toward mastery or performance orientations. The more choices and control you can give to students over how they will demonstrate their learning to you, the more you nudge them toward mastery learning. By contrast, if you force all students to jump through the same six hoops, you are sending the message that what matters are the hoops, not the learning. We should be engineering our assessment systems to ensure that students see our assignments and exams as opportunities to extend and demonstrate their learning, rather than as hurdles we make them jump over or duels we make them fight.”

            • Developing students’ interest and intrinsic motivation is an important cheating preventer, says Lang. One of the best ways to accomplish this is posing intriguing and challenging questions and problems and shaping classroom interactions around finding the answers. Every time teachers step into their classrooms they should be asking themselves, “Why should students care about this material?”

            • One reason students cheat is that they have an inaccurate metacognitive sense of their grasp of the material. “Typically they overestimate their understanding,” says Lang, “which leads them to underprepare. Then they find themselves in front of a test or in the eleventh hour before an assignment is due, and they realize that they are in serious trouble.” In desperation, they look at a nearby student’s test, pull out a smartphone, or plagiarize. The best way to give students an accurate picture of their level of mastery is frequent, low-stakes assessments with prompt feedback.

            • “Grounded” assignments and assessments are also helpful, says Lang – based on real-world situations that spark intrinsic motivation and make cheating both difficult and unnecessary.

            • Administrators can support teachers by taking reports of cheating seriously, following up in ways that are not burdensome to classroom teachers, keeping track of all instances, and identifying repeat offenders.

            • A common reaction when educators discover cheating is to get angry and say, “What made you think you could get away with this? Do you think I’m an idiot?” Lang’s advice to teachers who discover cheating: “Don’t take it personally. Students cheat on assignments or exams; they don’t cheat on you.” For first offenders, give them the consequences and hope they learn from it. But repeat offenders need more serious consequences from administrators.


“Cheating Lessons” – An interview with James Lang by Serena Golden in Inside Higher Ed, September 11, 2013,; Lang can be reached at [email protected].

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3. Does the Common Core Promote Moral Relativism?

            In this Education Gadfly article, Kathleen Porter-Magee says most schools teach fact and opinion in a way that leads to squishy moral reasoning: facts exist or can be proven, opinions are subjective, so there are no absolute “moral facts” that can or should be imposed on others. In short, to each his or her own. According to philosopher James McBrayer in a recent New York Times blog, his fellow professors report that “the overwhelming majority of college freshmen in their classrooms view moral claims as mere opinions that are not true or are true only relative to a culture.”

            Porter-Magee believes the binary fact/opinion approach, which she says is reflected in the pre-Common Core curriculum standards of all but five states, is missing an important third category: moral judgments – for example, murder is wrong. “If moral facts exist,” says Porter-Magee, “then saying that murder is wrong isn’t merely an opinion. Most Americans accept that ‘murder is wrong’ is a moral fact. Therefore, we have no problem imposing that moral law on society and holding all people, regardless of their personal beliefs and opinions, to that moral standard. Of course, moral facts aren’t provable the same way objective facts are. They are arrived at through reasoned judgment. I can ‘prove’ the table is hard. I can ‘prove’ that vaccines prevent disease. But I can’t ‘prove’ murder is wrong, or that it’s wrong to steal. I accept that murder is wrong and that stealing is wrong through reasoned judgment.”

            McBrayer’s blog attracted a lot of attention because he said that Common Core standards continue the fact/opinion fallacy. In truth, says Porter-Magee, the grade 6-12 Common Core standards specifically require that students “distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.” Middle and high school, she argues, is the appropriate stage for students to make this kind of moral argument. McBrayer’s thesis is even weaker, she says, because he cited curriculum materials that were developed by an independent group that is not affiliated with Common Core.

            “So what would a reasoned judgment conclude about McBrayer’s attack on Common Core?” Porter-Magee concludes. “Rather than reinforcing the prevailing moral relativism in our schools, Common Core actually provides a path forward for students themselves to find their way back to moral facts.”


“Moral Facts and the Common Core” by Kathleen Porter-Magee in Education Gadfly, March 11, 2015 (Vol. 15, #10),

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4. Three Ways Young Adolescents Can Build Strong Vocabularies

            In this Review of Educational Research article, Evelyn Ford-Connors and Jeanne Paratore (Boston University) say it’s critically important to expand students’ vocabularies between grade 5 and 12. Why the focus on this age-range? Because so many adolescents are struggling with literacy, because the texts they’re asked to read are increasingly demanding, and because researchers have found that a wide vocabulary is an integral component of proficient reading. “Word knowledge exists as a rich network of information in which words are connected to mental schema, prior experience, and associations with other words, concepts, and ideas,” say Ford-Connors and Paratore. “Knowledge of a word thus extends well beyond its definition to include not only the ability to recognize a word but also to instantly access information about it and to create meaning from spoken or written texts.”

How are students going to learn the tens of thousands of words they need to be prepared for college and career success? Being exposed to a word once or twice is clearly insufficient. To add a word to their vocabulary, students need to move along this continuum:

-   No idea what the word means;

-   Have heard it but don’t know its meaning;

-   Recognize it in context as related to a particular category or idea;

-   Understand its meaning in a variety of contexts;

-   Can use the word accurately in speaking and writing.

It takes numerous exposures to words and related ideas in a variety of contexts to reach the last stage – and that has to happen thousands of times during middle and high-school years.

Why do so many students lack appropriately sophisticated vocabularies? Ford-Connors and Paratore believe a major reason is the word-learning strategies being used in many U.S. classrooms. The most common approach is teachers introducing lists of words, providing synonyms, and having students look them up in the dictionary and use them in sentences. This strategy is “largely ineffective for increasing students’ understanding of words,” they say, because it provides neither the repeated exposure nor the rich network of semantic and associative connections necessary to embed new words in students’ vocabularies – especially students who enter knowing relatively few words.

What is to be done? Ford-Connors and Paratore point to three research-based components of effective vocabulary development that teachers need to use on a regular basis if they’re not already doing so:

Wide reading of complex texts – This is the only way students will be exposed to enough words enough times and in enough contexts to master them. For students to do lots of reading, they need to be motivated by their teachers, by intrinsic and developed interests and passions, and have access to the right kinds of reading materials.

Instruction in word learning strategies – As students read complex texts, they will encounter numerous words they don’t know. Students must be able to figure them out or find their meanings, and this is where teachers’ explicit instruction is vital – about context clues, morphology, multiple meanings, and “word consciousness” (words’ role in sentences and how they can be used differently when spoken or written). And of course certain target words must be taught directly – perhaps 10-12 a week with many exposures and angles of approach, combined with strategy instruction on their use.

            • Teachers orchestrating rich discussions – High-quality classroom exchanges are a surprisingly important factor in developing vocabulary, say Ford-Connors and Paratore. Such discussions expose students to hundreds of words in meaningful contexts and enrich the breadth and depth of word knowledge. The key is teachers’ skill in facilitating the conversation: “Variety in teachers’ questioning techniques extends and challenges students’ thinking while encouraging the exploratory talk that supports critical analysis of content,” say the authors. “A broad repertoire of teacher talk moves, including, for example, questioning, elaborating, or speculating, scaffolds students’ participation and offers students models for engaging in academic inquiry.”


“Vocabulary Instruction in Fifth Grade and Beyond: Sources of Word Learning and Productive Contexts for Development” by Evelyn Ford-Connors and Jeanne Paratore in Review of Educational Research, March 2015 (Vol. 85, #1, p. 50-91), available for purchase at; the authors can be reached at [email protected] and [email protected].

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5. A Pennsylvania Teacher Makes Poetry a Daily Routine

            In this Edutopia article, Pennsylvania teacher Brett Vogelsinger says that one of his most successful routines over the last year has been starting each of his ninth-grade classes with a new poem. Many of his students have previously experienced poetry classes as “dissection labs;” his goal is to make the genre something students love. Here are his suggestions for choosing poems that will make these lesson segments “brisk and bright”:

-   Choose poems that students can understand on the first reading – and reveal greater depth when re-read.

-   Choose poems short enough to understand and analyze in a few minutes.

-   Choose poems with humor, nostalgia, sarcasm, despair.

-   Choose poems you find engaging and fascinating.

Here are some of the activities Vogelsinger uses in his daily poetry start-up routine:

            • Sketch this poem. Students spend three minutes making a sketch of what they see in a poem and then five minutes discussing the differences in what they saw. His students tried this with “Little Citizen, Little Survivor” by Hayden Carruth, a poem about a rat in a wood pile.

            • Wave this poem. Students sit in a circle and read the poem one word per student, moving around the circle like a wave, repeating it till the language becomes smooth and fluid.

            • Shout out this poem. Students find their favorite word or phrase, and when he reads the poem a second time, they join in on their chosen parts. This leads to a good discussion about why certain lines stand out.

            • Build this poem. He cuts a poem into lines (or, with a short poem, into words), puts the pieces into envelopes, and has students assemble the poem before they’ve read it. When they hear the real poem, they’re ready to discuss its logical coherence and share some different

ideas on how to express the ideas.

            • Wordle this poem. Vogelsinger feeds the poem into Wordle to create a word-splash of all its nouns, has students predict what it’s about, and discusses whether the nouns are used literally or figuratively.

            • Update this poem. Students rewrite a poem in contemporary language or substitute local place-names and people. Vogelsinger had his students read “Clay County” by John Hodgen and turn it into “Bucks County.”

            • Overdramatize this poem. After a first reading in a normal tone of voice, he challenges students to read it in an overzealous, dramatic style and discuss different interpretations.

            • Wreck this poem. Students suggest altering five words in a poem that will destroy the quality or completely change the subject.

            • Gift this poem. Students write in their journals for three minutes about a person they’d like to give the poem to and why, and then share their ideas with a partner.

            • Connect this poem. Students are challenged to make non-obvious connections between a poem and something else they’re studying – for example, Vogelsinger asked students whether there are connections between a haiku about a falcon by An’Ya and To Kill a Mockingbird.

            • Hear this poem. He searches the Internet for clips of poets reading their own work or performing it in a poetry slam.

            • E-mail or tweet this poem. A class composes a collective interpretation of a poem and sends it to the poet for his or her reactions. Vogelsinger says his classes have had lively exchanges with Jason Tandon, Sean Hewitt, Robert Pinsky, and others.


“Brisk and Bright Approaches for National Poetry Month” by Brett Vogelsinger in Edutopia, March 9, 2015,

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6. Using the Newspaper for Daily Literacy Instruction

            In this Elementary School Journal article, Michelle Jordan (Arizona State University) describes how a veteran teacher used the local newspaper for daily interactive readalouds with her first graders. This exposed students to sophisticated, ever-changing nonfiction texts, broadened their horizons, and engaged them in frequent, vocabulary- and conceptually rich discussions in line with Common Core expectations. Here are some of the ways the teacher scaffolded learning in these daily sessions:

            • Emphasizing the unfolding nature of the world – Following stories and waiting for outcomes and modeling ways to talk about things that haven’t happened yet. For example, there were allegations that baseball pitcher Roger Clemens was lying about using performance-enhancing drugs and the teacher cautioned a student who called him a “cheater” that it was as yet unproven: “We have to wait to find that out.”

            • Acknowledging uncertainty – This involved positioning themselves as fellow wonderers and following weather reports to see how predictions turned out.

            • Improvising connections and engaging in improvisational storytelling – “Because newspapers are unpredictable in their daily subject matter, talk was less scripted in this activity than in other instructional events in this class,” says Jordan. “The teacher had to use whatever physical and conceptual materials were at hand in the news each day to develop students’ textual engagement.” This provided excitement and unexpected learning each day.

            • Positioning students as members of a larger community – Every day, the teacher kicked off the newspaper activity with this question: “Did anyone hear or see anything they want me to look for in the newspaper?” The fact that newspapers contain real-time information about events that students might have heard about “reduced the unequal footing between the teacher and the students.” Jordan’s quantitative analysis of classroom interactions in the daily newspaper readalouds found that 55 percent of talk turns were made by individual students and students increasingly initiated topics as the year went on. Students highlighted stories about local or upcoming events and called attention to simultaneously occurring events – for example, one student mentioned that she had gone swimming over the weekend and the teacher drew attention to a news story and photo about a triathlon in Florida. “Look at all the folks who did the same thing you did. I bet you didn’t go swimming there, did you?”


“Extra! Extra! Read All About It: Teacher Scaffolds Interactive Read-Alouds of a Dynamic Text” by Michelle Jordan in The Elementary School Journal, March 2015 (Vol. 115, #3, p. 358-383); this article can be purchased at; Jordan can be reached at [email protected].

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7. A Successful Extended-Day Partnership in the Bronx

            In this Kappan article, New York City principal Ramón González describes his middle school’s decade-long struggle to boost students’ literacy skills. In the early years, he and his colleagues stocked classrooms with books, took students to libraries and bookstores, organized a monthly Principal’s Book Club, held reading celebrations, and got school staff to work with students after hours. But all this wasn’t enough to put a significant dent in low achievement, and teachers working a second shift were showing signs of burnout.

So the school partnered with a program called MS ExTRA to run the late-afternoon portion of the day. Working with several groups including The After-School Corporation (TASC) and Arête Education, MS ExTRA orchestrated more than two hours a day of extra support, literacy tutoring, and enrichment activities (including dance, health, wellness, and robotics). Students also began to attend a summer program to stem learning loss during July and August.
            The results were dramatic. Teachers reported that students were more engaged and ready to learn, sixth graders’ attendance jumped to 97 percent, and the school’s 2013 state ELA test scores were higher than any other public school with similar demographics (charter or traditional). After two years, the school was performing 70 percent above all middle schools in New York City.

González is quick to point out that not every extended-day program produces results like this. Here is his analysis of the key factors in his school’s success:

Find the right community partner. There has to be a good match, a shared commitment to maintaining academic rigor, and mutual learning. “You know you have a strong partnership when both partners influence each other,” says González.

Coordinate the expanded day with the regular school day. “We don’t call our expanded hours ‘after-school’,” says González; “we call them 9th, 10th, and 11th periods.” There’s constant communication “to make sure that what goes on during the school day informs and reflects what’s happening in the late afternoon.” In particular, there’s been a full-court press to build students’ vocabulary and make sure students are using new words in all their activities.

Think creatively about budgeting and staffing. The extended day is supported by funds from the school department, Title I, and private grants, and some staff spread their time over the two parts of the day.

Don’t start from scratch. TASC’s website has suggested tools and resources for this kind of partnership in other schools.


“Don’t Try to Bridge the Literacy Gap Alone” by Ramón González in Phi Delta Kappan, March 2015 (Vol. 96, #6, p 55-58),; González can be reached at [email protected].

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8. A Mississippi Teacher Flips Test Review

(Originally titled “Snowstorms and Studying Breakthroughs”)

            In this Education Update article, high-school teacher Lillian Sims says she’d reached an impasse with her twelfth grade British literature class: “They wanted a spoon-fed curriculum and I wanted to teach without sacrificing rigor.” A quarter of her students weren’t on track to pass, and some left her test papers completely blank.

But then a freak snowstorm cancelled school for two days and Sims tried something new to help students prepare for an upcoming test. She recorded a brief video of herself paging through the textbook noting key items, summarized historical events and poems, suggested an acronym to remember titles in a logical sequence, and showed how each poem fit into the unit’s themes. She uploaded the video to YouTube and alerted her students about it by e-mail, Facebook, Remind, and Twitter.

When school re-opened, students said they loved the video and wanted her to do it again for future tests. What was the big deal? Sims wondered – all she’d done was review what they’d already heard in class. But then she understood: “[I]t wasn’t hearing me talk all over again that had helped; it was seeing me demonstrate how I ‘study.’ My students didn’t need help with literature; they needed help with how to learn.”

            For the rest of the year, Sims made a regular routine of uploading study videos, and the results were dramatic. Test grades improved by two letter grades, failures dropped from 15 to 4, every student tried hard, and the number of As went from 6 to 33 percent of the class.


“Snowstorms and Studying Breakthroughs” by Lillian Sims in Education Update, March 2015 (Vol. 57, #3, p. 8),; Sims can be reached at [email protected].

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9. Short Items:

            a. Demystifying the Common Core – This GreatSchools site aims to make the new K-5 standards accessible to parents and others via brief videos for each grade level:


“GreatSchools Milestones” by Robert Pondiscio in The Education Gadfly, March 11, 2015 (Vol. 15, #10),

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            b. Duolingo for Schools – In this School Library Journal review, Melissa Techman (school librarian in Albemarle County, Virginia) recommends this foreign-language learning tool for grades 6 and up: It has free, interactive instruction in Spanish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and several other languages.


“Duolingo for Schools, Reviewed” by Melissa Techman in School Library Journal, March 2015 (Vol. 61, #3, p. 14-15),

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            c. A consumer guide to Common Core math materials – EdReports is a new nonprofit that has teachers, principals, and instructional coaches analyzing the quality of curriculum materials on three criteria: focus and coherence, rigor of mathematical practices, and instructional supports and other usability indicators: So far, very few commercial programs are getting good reviews: of the twenty K-8 math series reviewed, only one, Eureka, met EdReport’s criteria for alignment in all grades, with another, My Math, meeting criteria only in grades 4 and 5. Eureka was created from scratch for New York State’s website, EngageNY.


“” by Victoria Sears in The Education Gadfly, March 11, 2015 (Vol. 15, #10),

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About the Marshall Memo


Mission and focus:

This weekly memo is designed to keep principals, teachers, superintendents, and others very well-informed on current research and effective practices in K-12 education. Kim Marshall, drawing on 44 years’ experience as a teacher, principal, central office administrator, and writer, lightens the load of busy educators by serving as their “designated reader.”


To produce the Marshall Memo, Kim subscribes to 64 carefully-chosen publications (see list to the right), sifts through more than a hundred articles each week, and selects 5-10 that have the greatest potential to improve teaching, leadership, and learning. He then writes a brief summary of each article, pulls out several striking quotes, provides e-links to full articles when available, and e-mails the Memo to subscribers every Monday evening (with occasional breaks; there are 50 issues a year).



Individual subscriptions are $50 for a year. Rates decline steeply for multiple readers within the same organization. See the website for these rates and how to pay by check, credit card, or purchase order.



If you go to you will find detailed information on:

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• A detailed rationale for the Marshall Memo

• Publications (with a count of articles from each)

• Article selection criteria

• Topics (with a count of articles from each)

• Headlines for all issues

• Reader opinions (with results of an annual survey)

• About Kim Marshall (including links to articles)

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Subscribers have access to the Members’ Area of the website, which has:

• The current issue (in Word or PDF)

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Core list of publications covered

Those read this week are underlined.

American Educational Research Journal

American Educator

American Journal of Education

American School Board Journal

AMLE Magazine

ASCA School Counselor

ASCD SmartBrief/Public Education NewsBlast

Better: Evidence-Based Education

Center for Performance Assessment Newsletter

District Administration

Ed. Magazine

Education Digest

Education Gadfly

Education Next

Education Week

Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis

Educational Horizons

Educational Leadership

Educational Researcher

Elementary School Journal

Essential Teacher

Go Teach

Harvard Business Review

Harvard Education Letter

Harvard Educational Review

Independent School

Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk (JESPAR)

Journal of Staff Development

Kappa Delta Pi Record

Knowledge Quest

Middle School Journal


Phi Delta Kappan


Principal Leadership

Principal’s Research Review

Reading Research Quarterly

Reading Today

Responsive Classroom Newsletter

Rethinking Schools

Review of Educational Research

School Administrator

School Library Journal


Teachers College Record

Teaching Children Mathematics

Teaching Exceptional Children/Exceptional Children

The Atlantic

The Chronicle of Higher Education

The District Management Journal

The Journal of the Learning Sciences

The Language Educator

The Learning Principal/Learning System/Tools for Schools

The New York Times

The New Yorker

The Reading Teacher

Theory Into Practice


Wharton Leadership Digest